Risk assessment and personalised risk management of violent extremists should be based on empirical knowledge.

Therefore, Elaine Pressman (2009) developed the original VERA based on existing knowledge of violent extremists and terrorists. The indicators used in the protocol were integrated into a structured professional judgment methodology. Feedback from terrorism experts, national security analysts and law enforcement operatives, experiences in the application of the VERA with convicted terrorists in high security prisons and research on reliability and validity, has resulted in the revision of the VERA to the VERA-2 (Pressman & Flockton, 2012; Monahan, 2012; 2012; Beardsley & Beech, 2013;).

The current VERA-2R is a revised and enhanced version of the VERA-2 due to additional literature research and feedback from users and experts (Duits et al, 2017). The VERA-2R contains three more indicators and uses more specified dynamic indicators that are consistent with the process to extremist violence. This dynamic approach is crucial for assessing increasing or decreasing risks at an individual level and potential risk-management strategies.

The NIFP will further develop and improve the instrument on an empirical basis with advice of experts (Duits et al, 2017). The NIFP gives VERA-2R introductions, training and implementation courses to professionals in Europe. The NIFP collaborates with Elaine Pressmann for training courses outside Europe.