Radicalization is defined by the General Intelligence and Security Service of the Netherlands (AIVD) and National Coordinator for Security and Counterterrorism (NCTV) as: ‘The active pursuit of and/or support for fundamental changes in society that may endanger the continued existence of the democratic order (aim), which may involve the use of undemocratic methods (means) that may harm the functioning of the democratic order (effect).’

Radicalization is generally used to describe the process of adopting an extremist belief system that may result in the acceptance, legitimation and/or use of violence (Moghaddam, 2005; Precht, 2007; Silber & Bhatt, 2007).