Violence can be defined as ‘actual, attempted, or threatened harm to a person or persons’ (Douglas et al, 2013).

The VERA-2R defines violence as a physical act causing injury, or harm or killing or the threat of such action that is unlawful (Pressman et al, 2016).

The Oxford Dictionary defines violence more broadly as “behaviour involving physical force intended to hurt, damage or kill someone or something”. This definition, often used by law enforcement, is relevant to violent extremist actions which may be intended to cause damage to persons or property or both due to ideological motivation.