The VERA-2R may be used in prejudicial, judicial and post-judicial settings.
The VERA-2R is used in the pre-trial phase to inform courts, to inform decision making in pre-trial detention and/or the regime in prison.
It is used in the termination of detention, and in the post sentencing release on parole of prisoners convicted of crime (Borum, 2015; Monahan, 2015, Monahan, 2018; Pressman, Duits, Rinne & Flockton, 2018; Pressman & Duits, 2019). The VERA-2R supports the analysis of risk scenario’s and relevant objectives for risk management of violent extremism.
The VERA-2R is applicable to evaluate all ideological types of violent extremism and terrorism, it is applicable to lone actors and members of extremist groups, and to adolescents.
In the correctional setting the VERA-2R can be used to identify the inmate’s risk for generating harm in the prison setting, and to underbuilt decisions about prison differentiation (Duits et al., 2017).
Risk scenario’s and management
For rehabilitation and other intervention strategies the VERA-2r can provide information about risk scenario’s and risk management. Possible changes can be measured with repeated risk assessments relating to the risk management intervention programs. The VERA-2R risk assessment can help determine whether prisoners are able to be released on parole (Pressman et al., 2018).
In the probation setting the use of VERA-2R risk assessment can be used prior to parole decisions. During parole, conditional release and probation repeated risk assessments are necessary to establish the risk that the persons under supervision will (re)commit violent extremism and terrorist offences (Pressman et al., 2018).
On the radar
Intelligence or national security law enforcement can use VERA-2R risk assessments for persons of interest and prioritizing persons ‘on the radar’ to disrupt or deny opportunities to engage in terrorism-defined activities.
The VERA-2R can be used based on records, files, other documents, monitoring and observations. The consistent VERA-2R approach permits consensus risk decisions or judgments.
In the court system, the VERA-2R is used in the pre-trial context to inform court, defense and prosecution about the risk of indicted terrorist(s) and also to inform and advice the court at the expiry of their sentence in relation to the danger of convicted terrorists.
The VERA-2R is also used in the immigration context by officials concerned about violent extremism risk in asylum seekers, and in the Military Defense intelligence context.